|Milestone 1||Milestone 2||Milestone 3|
|Composition||Write with purposeThis concept involves understanding the purpose or purposes of a piece of writing.|
|• Say first and then write to tell others about ideas.
• Write for a variety of purposes.
• Plan by talking about ideas and writing notes.
• Use some of the characteristic features of the type of writing used.
• Write, review and improve.
|• Use the main features of a type of writing (identified in reading).
• Use techniques used by authors to create characters and settings.
• Compose and rehearse sentences orally.
• Plan, write, edit and improve.
|• Identify the audience for writing.
• Choose the appropriate form of writing using the main features identified in reading.
• Note, develop and research ideas.
• Plan, draft, write, edit and improve.
|Composition||Use imaginative descriptionThis concept involves developing an appreciation of how best to convey ideas through description.|
|• Use well-chosen adjectives to add detail.
• Use names of people, places and things.
• Use well-chosen adjectives.
• Use nouns and pronouns for variety.
• Use adverbs for extra detail.
|• Create characters, settings and plots.
• Use alliteration effectively.
• Use similes effectively.
• Use a range of descriptive phrases including some collective nouns.
|• Use the techniques that authors use to create characters, settings and plots.
• Create vivid images by using alliteration, similes, metaphors and personification.
• Interweave descriptions of characters, settings and atmosphere with dialogue.
|Composition||Organise writing appropriatelyThis concept involves developing an appreciation of how best to convey ideas through description.|
|• Re-read writing to check it makes sense.
• Use the correct tenses.
• Organise writing in line with its purpose.
|• Use organisational devices such as headings and sub headings.
• Use the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause.
• Use connectives that signal time, shift attention, inject suspense and shift the setting.
|• Guide the reader by using a range of organisational devices, including a range of connectives.
• Choose effective grammar and punctuation.
• Ensure correct use of tenses throughout a piece of writing.
|Composition||Use paragraphsThis concept involves understanding how to group ideas so as to guide the reader.|
|• Write about more than one idea.
• Group related information.
|• Organise paragraphs around a theme.
• Sequence paragraphs.
|• Write paragraphs that give the reader a sense of clarity.
• Write paragraphs that make sense if read alone.
• Write cohesively at length.
|Composition||Use sentences appropriatelyThis concept involves using different types of sentences appropriately for both clarity and for effect.|
|• Write so that other people can understand the meaning of sentences.
• Sequence sentences to form clear narratives.
• Convey ideas sentence by sentence.
• Join sentences with conjunctions and connectives.
• Vary the way sentences begin.
|• Use a mixture of simple, compound and complex sentences.
• Write sentences that include:
• direct speech, punctuated correctly
• adverbial phrases.
|• Write sentences that include:
• relative clauses
• modal verbs
• relative pronouns
• a mixture of active and passive voice
• a clear subject and object
• hyphens, colons and semi colons
• bullet points.
|Transcription||Present neatlyThis concept involves developing an understanding of handwriting and clear presentation.|
|• Sit correctly and hold a pencil correctly.
• Begin to form lower-case letters correctly.
• Form capital letters.
• Form digits 0-9.
• Understand letters that are formed in similar ways.
• Form lower-case letters of a consistent size.
• Begin to join some letters.
• Write capital letters and digits of consistent size.
• Use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters.
|• Join letters, deciding which letters are best left un-joined.
• Make handwriting legible by ensuring downstrokes of letters are parallel and letters are spaced appropriately.
|• Write fluently and legibly with a personal style.|
|Transcription||Spell correctlyThis concept involves understanding the need for accuracy.|
|• Spell words containing 40+ learned phonemes.
• Spell common exception words (the, said, one, two and the days of the week).
• Name letters of the alphabet in order.
• Use letter names to describe spellings of words.
• Add prefixes and suffixes, learning the rule for adding s and es as a plural marker for nouns, and the third person singular marker for verbs (I drink - he drinks).
• Use the prefix un.
• Use suffixes where no change to the spelling of the root word is needed: helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest.
• Use spelling rules.
• Write simple sentences dictated by the teacher.
• Spell by segmenting words into phonemes and represent them with the correct graphemes.
• Learn some new ways to represent phonemes.
• Spell common exception words correctly.
• Spell contraction words correctly (can't, don't).
• Add suffixes to spell longer words (-ment, -ness, -ful and -less).
• Use the possessive apostrophe. (singular) (for example, the girl's book)• Distinguish between homophones and near-homophones.
|• Use prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them.
• Spell homophones correctly.
• Spell correctly often misspelt words.
• Place the possessive apostrophe accurately in words with regular plurals (for example, girls', boys') and in words with irregular plurals (for example, children's).
• Use the first two or three letters of a word to check its spelling in a dictionary.
• Write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far.
|• Use prefixes appropriately.
• Spell some words with silent letters (knight, psalm and solemn).
• Distinguish between homophones and other words that are often confused.
• Use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that some words need to be learned specifically.
• Use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words.
• Use the first three or four letters of a word to look up the meaning or spelling of words in a dictionary.
• Use a thesaurus.
• Spell the vast majority of words correctly.
|Transcription||Punctuate accuratelyThis concept involves understanding that punctuation adds clarity to writing.|
|• Leave spaces between words.
• Use the word 'and' to join words and sentences.
• Begin to punctuate using a capital letter for the name of people, places, the days of the week and I.
• Use both familiar and new punctuation correctly, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms.
• Use sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation and command.
• Use extended noun phrases to describe and specify (e.g. the blue butterfly).
• Use subordination (when, if, that or because).
• Use coordination (or, and, but).
• Use some features of standard written English.
• Use the present and past tenses correctly, including the progressive form.
|• Develop understanding of writing concepts by:
• Extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although.
• Using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense.
• Choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition.
• Using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause.
• Using fronted adverbials.
• Indicate grammatical and other features by:
• Using commas after fronted adverbials.
• Indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns.
• Using and punctuating direct speech.
|• Develop understanding of writing concepts by:
• Recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms.
• Using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence.
• Using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause.
• Using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely.
• Using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility.
• Using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun.
• Indicate grammatical and other features by:
• Using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing.
• Using hyphens to avoid ambiguity.
• Using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis.
• Using semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses.
• Using a colon to introduce a list.
• Punctuating bullet points consistently.
|Analysis and Presentation||Analyse writing This concept involves understanding how grammatical choices give effect and meaning to writing.|
|• Discuss writing with the teacher and other pupils.
• Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing: Year 1
• word, sentence, letter, capital letter, full stop, punctuation, singular, plural, question mark, exclamation mark. Year 2
• Use and understand grammatical terminology in discussing writing:
• verb, tense (past, present), adjective, noun, suffix, apostrophe, comma.
|• Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading: Year 3
• word family, conjunction, adverb, preposition, direct speech, inverted commas (or 'speech marks'), prefix, consonant, vowel, clause, subordinate clause. Year 4
• pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial.
|• Use and understand grammatical terminology when discussing writing and reading: Year 5
• relative clause, modal verb, relative pronoun, parenthesis, bracket, dash, determiner, cohesion, ambiguity. Year 6
• active and passive voice, subject and object, hyphen, synonym, colon, semi-colon, bullet points.
|Analysis and Presentation||Present writingThis concept involves learning to reflect upon writing and reading it aloud to others.|
|• Read aloud writing clearly enough to be heard by peers and the teacher.
• Read aloud writing with some intonation.
|• Read aloud writing to a group or whole class, using appropriate intonation.||• Perform compositions, using appropriate intonation and volume.|